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Geography Notes

Major Ocean Currents: How to learn faster?

In our geography notes on the hydrosphere, we have seen the major movements of the ocean water. They are – waves, tides and ocean currents. Having covered the fundamentals, we shall see in this post, a super-fast way to learn the details of ocean currents. Names, direction, nature….and what not! Well, you might …

Ocean Floor: Everything you need to know

Geography is an interesting subject which covers land (lithosphere), water (hydrosphere) and air (atmosphere). Hope you have gone through our easy-to-learn notes covering important land features. Now let’s see how to learn-fast the concepts associated with hydrosphere. Let’s start from ocean floor first. Earth – the water planet We know that …

Earth’s Crust: Elements, Minerals and Rocks

In the previous article in geography section, we have discussed in detail about the interior of the earth. We have seen different layers like crust, core, and mantle. The Crust – even though very thin – as being the outer part of the lithosphere, is very significant. In this article, we …

Interior of the Earth: Crust, Mantle and Core

In this article (geography section), we discuss the interior of the earth. Understanding the basic structure of earth is very important to learn higher concepts well. Also, the origin of many phenomena like earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunami etc are linked with the structure of earth’s interior. What should you understand about the …

Erosion and Deposition: Action of Wind and Waves

In the previous articles, we have been discussing various exogenic geomorphic agents like water (running water and groundwater) and glaciers. We have seen the evolution of landforms due to these agents. In this post, we discuss in detail how the wind and the waves cause the evolution of various landforms on the …

Erosion and Deposition: Action of Glaciers

In the previous article, we were discussing the evolution of landforms due to the activities of running water and groundwater. This article deals with the evolution of landforms due to another exogenic geomorphic agent – glaciers. What is a Glacier? Glaciers are a mass of ice moving under its own …

Exogenic Forces: Classification

We have been discussing geomorphic processes in our previous notes in the Geography section. We have already seen that geomorphic processes are classified into endogenic processes and exogenic processes. As endogenic processes are already covered in detail, in this post we focus on exogenic forces and exogenic processes. What are Exogenic Forces? The forces …

Earthquakes: Everything you need to know

Earthquakes and volcanoes are examples of sudden movements which originate from inside the earth. We have already seen the types of volcanoes. But, what is an earthquake? To put it simple, earthquake is the shaking of the earth. An earth quake can be defined as a sudden violent shaking of the ground …

Endogenic Forces and Evolution of Land forms

We have already seen that Geomorphic processes can create land forms. We also know that endogenic forces (internal) and exogenic forces (external) are the two main types of geomorphic processes which results in earth movements. In this post, let’s study endogenic forces in detail. Endogenic Forces – Internal forces in …

Geomorphic Processes and Earth Movements

It is time to know in detail about the surface of the earth on which we live. We know that the surface of the earth is not a plain platform. It is distributed unevenly with a variety of landforms like mountains, hills, plateaus, plains, ravines, cliffs etc. Why is the surface …

Different soil types in India: Understand the differences

This post is a continuation of our previous article on Soils of India: Classification and Characteristics. The Indian council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) set up an All India Soil Survey Committee in 1953 which divided the Indian soils into eight major groups. For ease of understanding and comparative study, this post about …

Soils of India: Classification and Characteristics

This article is part of our free online study materials in the Geography section. Like the previous articles in the History section, this post – about the classification of soils in India – highlights only the main points in an exam point of view. From the UPSC exam perspective aspirants should be …

Distribution of Major Industries: Location Factors

Just like all vegetation cannot be seen all over the world, industries too are not seen every where. Industries have affinity towards particular locations. Of-course, availability of raw material is one of the major reasons, but that is not the sole determinant. This post explores the distribution of major industries across …

Factors Responsible for the Location of Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sector Industries in Various Parts of the World (Including India)

Factors Responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India) is a topic mentioned in General Studies Paper 1(GS1) for UPSC Mains. Basic concepts related to Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Sectors are covered in our post on Sectors of Economy : Primary, Secondary, …

Sectors of Economy: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary and Quinary

Human activities which generate income are known as economic activities. Economic activities are broadly grouped into primary, secondary, tertiary activities. Higher services under tertiary activities are again classified into quaternary and quinary activities. Let us first understand the differences between the different sectors of the economy, so that it will be easier for …

Urban Heat Islands

Urban Heat Islands (UHI) are significantly warmer urban areas than its surrounding rural areas due to human activities. Urban Heat Island is a major problem associated with rapid urbanization. The temperature increase is attributed to deforestation and the construction materials adopted for city building. Usually, under the urban heat island phenomenon, …

Countries of the World Listed By Continent

In Geography, we study about the earth as a whole. Political Geography is a branch of geography which studies the political entities like countries, across the globe. It always helps to have a good idea about the location of different nations. List of countries of the world, classified according to …