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Indian Polity Notes

Major Tribes in India: State-wise compilation

A tribe is a social division in a traditional society consisting of families linked by social, economic, religious, or blood ties, with a common culture and dialect. A tribe possesses certain qualities and characteristics that make it a unique cultural, social, and political entity. This post is about the major tribes in India. …

Ragging in India: How to prevent?

This small write-up covers the different aspects related to ragging in India including the psyche behind ragging, rights issue and the steps that can be taken to prevent ragging. What is ragging? Ragging is defined as an act that violates or is perceived to violate an individual student’s dignity. Done …

Types of Majorities Used in the Indian Parliament

What is the difference between absolute majority and effective majority? How is simple majority different from the special majority required by article 368? Confusing questions! The majority required to pass a resolution, motion or a bill varies depending upon the purpose. As this is one of the most confusing area …

When Does a Bill Lapse in Indian Parliament?

We sometimes read news about lapsed bills with respect to Indian Parliament as well as State Legislatures. But when does a bill lapse? Normally, bills lapse in connection with the dissolution of one of the Houses. There are multiple sub-cases regarding this. In this post, we discuss the different cases …

The State Legislature – in General (Article 168-177)

This post on the State Legislature is a part of Clear IAS polity series on Indian Constitution, covering all the important topics from Article 1 to Article 395. Posts so far published under this series are linked directly under their respective chapters and parts. Our goal is to cover Indian Constitution in detail, giving stress …

Functions of an IAS Officer

We covered ‘Role of Civil Services in a Democracy‘ in our last post. Hope the overview is now clear. Civil Servants being permanent executives, they advise political executives. They also assist the ministers to formulate and execute policies. In this post, we shall see in particular the functions of an …

Role of Civil Services in a Democracy

Indian state has three typical branches – Executive, Legislature and Judiciary. Executive is responsible to Legislature while Legislature is responsible to people. By Executive here we meant Political Executive – the ministers. Political executives are not permanent, and in Indian scenario, since the Lok Sabha and State Legislative Assemblies are …

Council of Ministers in States (Articles 163-164)

Under our free online study materials for Polity, we have been doing detailed analysis of Indian Constitution – article-wise – a unique approach to learn Indian Constitution for Prelims, Mains and Interview. We follow the same constitutional order and wordings as in the Constitution of India. This approach not only helps in …

Important Parliamentary Committees in Detail

We have so far seen the list of Parliamentary Committee in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha. We have also seen the difference between Joint Committees and Select Committees. In this article, let us explore the details of some of the important Parliamentary Committees like Committee on Estimates, Committee on Public Undertakings, Committee on Public …

Parliamentary Committees in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha

You all are familiar with Parliament as a major organ of the state dealing with law making. Parliament is also the authority to check the Executive (government). Every Executive is answerable to the Parliament. Our discussion and analysis on Parliament will be incomplete if we don’t touch the Parliamentary Committees. These …

Indian Companies Act 2013 : Salient Features

The Indian Companies Act 2013 replaced the Indian Companies Act, 1956. The Companies Act 2013 makes comprehensive provisions to govern all listed and unlisted companies in the country. The Companies Act 2013 implemented many new sections and repealed the relevant corresponding sections of the Companies Act 1956. This is a landmark legislation with far-reaching consequences …

Governor of States (Article 152-162)

PART VI of the Constitution deals with the other half of Indian federalism, ie the States. Article from 152-237 deals with various provisions related to States. It covers the executive, legislature and judiciary wings of the states. Article 152 clarifies about the definition of state, while the next set of …

Bills and Procedures in the Parliament (Articles 107-122/122)

Articles 107-122 of Chapter II (Parliament) in the Part V (Union) of Constitution of India deals with three sub-topics namely : Legislative Procedure, Procedure in Financial Matters and Procedure Generally. These articles are very important, as it throw light on Joint Sitting (108), Definition of Money Bills (110) , Annual Financial Statement …