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UPSC Mains General Studies Paper 1 (GS1)

First World War (1914-1918): Causes and Consequences

First World War (World War I) is considered as one of the largest wars in history. The world’s great powers assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies (British Empire, France and the Russian Empire) versus the Central Powers (Germany and Austria-Hungary). WWI lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. The Two Groups: Allies vs …

Buddhist Councils: Everything you need to know!

Following the death of the Gauthama Buddha, several assemblies were convened to settle doctrinal disputes and to recite Buddhist texts. These Assemblies were known as Buddhist Councils. This post will help readers to memorize the details of each Buddhist Council, much faster. Buddhism Founded by Gautama Buddha (Sakyamuni) known originally …

Major Ocean Currents: How to learn faster?

In our geography notes on the hydrosphere, we have seen the major movements of the ocean water. They are – waves, tides and ocean currents. Having covered the fundamentals, we shall see in this post, a super-fast way to learn the details of ocean currents. Names, direction, nature….and what not! Well, you might …

Ocean Floor: Everything you need to know

Geography is an interesting subject which covers land (lithosphere), water (hydrosphere) and air (atmosphere). Hope you have gone through our easy-to-learn notes covering important land features. Now let’s see how to learn-fast the concepts associated with hydrosphere. Let’s start from ocean floor first. Earth – the water planet We know that …

Earth’s Crust: Elements, Minerals and Rocks

In the previous article in geography section, we have discussed in detail about the interior of the earth. We have seen different layers like crust, core, and mantle. The Crust – even though very thin – as being the outer part of the lithosphere, is very significant. In this article, we …

Interior of the Earth: Crust, Mantle and Core

In this article (geography section), we discuss the interior of the earth. Understanding the basic structure of earth is very important to learn higher concepts well. Also, the origin of many phenomena like earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunami etc are linked with the structure of earth’s interior. What should you understand about the …

Erosion and Deposition: Action of Wind and Waves

In the previous articles, we have been discussing various exogenic geomorphic agents like water (running water and groundwater) and glaciers. We have seen the evolution of landforms due to these agents. In this post, we discuss in detail how the wind and the waves cause the evolution of various landforms on the …

Erosion and Deposition: Action of Glaciers

In the previous article, we were discussing the evolution of landforms due to the activities of running water and groundwater. This article deals with the evolution of landforms due to another exogenic geomorphic agent – glaciers. What is a Glacier? Glaciers are a mass of ice moving under its own …

Exogenic Forces: Classification

We have been discussing geomorphic processes in our previous notes in the Geography section. We have already seen that geomorphic processes are classified into endogenic processes and exogenic processes. As endogenic processes are already covered in detail, in this post we focus on exogenic forces and exogenic processes. What are Exogenic Forces? The forces …

Earthquakes: Everything you need to know

Earthquakes and volcanoes are examples of sudden movements which originate from inside the earth. We have already seen the types of volcanoes. But, what is an earthquake? To put it simple, earthquake is the shaking of the earth. An earth quake can be defined as a sudden violent shaking of the ground …

Endogenic Forces and Evolution of Land forms

We have already seen that Geomorphic processes can create land forms. We also know that endogenic forces (internal) and exogenic forces (external) are the two main types of geomorphic processes which results in earth movements. In this post, let’s study endogenic forces in detail. Endogenic Forces – Internal forces in …

Geomorphic Processes and Earth Movements

It is time to know in detail about the surface of the earth on which we live. We know that the surface of the earth is not a plain platform. It is distributed unevenly with a variety of landforms like mountains, hills, plateaus, plains, ravines, cliffs etc. Why is the surface …

UPSC Mains 2015 GS1 Question Paper

Instructions: Answer the following questions in not more than 200 words each. Contents of the answers are more important than their length. All questions carry equal marks. Note: Each question carries 12.5 Marks (12.5×20 = 200 Marks ) The ancient civilization in Indian sub continent differed from those of Egypt, …