What is meant by logical reasoning and analytical ability? How to prepare logical reasoning and analytical ability for CSAT? Read to know more.
The UPSC Civil Services Aptitude Test (CSAT) is a critical component of the Civil Services Examination (CSE) designed to assess candidates’ logical reasoning and analytical abilities.
These skills are crucial for civil servants who need to analyze complex issues, make informed decisions, and solve intricate problems.
In this blog post, we’ll explore what logical reasoning and analytical ability entail and provide multiple-choice questions (MCQs) for each category to help you sharpen these skills for CSAT.
What is Logical Reasoning?
Logical reasoning involves the ability to think critically, identify patterns, draw conclusions, and make deductions based on information provided.
It requires a structured and systematic approach to problem-solving.
What is Analytical Ability?
Analytical ability refers to the capacity to break down complex problems into smaller components, examine them individually, and then synthesize the information to arrive at a comprehensive understanding or solution.
Analytical ability questions usually involve problem-solving with numbers, data, or abstract patterns.
Logical Reasoning MCQs
Syllogisms and logical reasoning questions test a candidate’s ability to think critically and analytically. In this section, we will provide a few multiple-choice questions with detailed solutions for practice in these areas.
All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore:
- A) Socrates is mortal.
- B) Socrates is not mortal.
- C) Cannot be determined.
- D) None of the above.
Correct Answer: A) Socrates is mortal.
Solution: This is a classic example of a syllogism. Since all men are mortal and Socrates is a man, it logically follows that Socrates is mortal. Correct answer: Option A.
If every student who scored above 90% in the math test got a certificate, and Maria received a certificate, what can we conclude?
- A) Maria scored above 90% in the math test.
- B) Maria did not score above 90% in the math test.
- C) All students received certificates.
- D) Maria is a teacher.
Correct Answer: A) Maria scored above 90% in the math test.
Explanation: Since Maria received a certificate, and the condition for receiving a certificate is scoring above 90% in the math test, we can conclude that Maria scored above 90%.
If A = 1, B = 2, C = 3, and so on until Z = 26, what is the numerical value of the word “LOGIC”?
- A) 33
- B) 43
- C) 54
- D) 63
Correct Answer: C) 54
Explanation: The word “LOGIC” corresponds to the letters L (12), O (15), G (7), I (9), and C (3). Adding these values together, we get 12 + 15 + 7 + 9 + 3 = 54.
Analytical Ability MCQs
Analytical ability refers to the set of skills and cognitive capacities that enable an individual to identify, assess, and solve problems efficiently and effectively.
Five friends—Alice, Bob, Carol, David, and Eve—are sitting around a round table. If Alice is to the left of David and Bob is to the right of Carol, who is sitting between Alice and Bob?
- A) Carol
- B) David
- C) Eve
- D) None
Correct Answer: A) Carol
Explanation: Since Alice is to the left of David and Bob is to the right of Carol, the seating arrangement is: Alice, David, Eve, Bob, Carol. Therefore, Carol is sitting between Alice and Bob.
In a group of 80 people, 45 people like coffee, 50 people like tea, and 20 people like both coffee and tea. How many people in the group do not like either coffee or tea?
- A) 10
- B) 15
- C) 25
- D) 30
Correct Answer: C) 25
Explanation: Let’s use a Venn diagram to visualize this problem:
- Set A represents people who like coffee.
- Set B represents people who like tea.
The overlap between A and B represents people who like both coffee and tea.
- |A| (number of people who like coffee) = 45
- |B| (number of people who like tea) = 50
- |A ∩ B| (number of people who like both coffee and tea) = 20
Now, to find the number of people who do not like either coffee or tea, we calculate:
Total number of people = |A| + |B| – |A ∩ B| = 45 + 50 – 20 = 75
So, the number of people who do not like either coffee or tea = Total number of people – (Number of people who like coffee + Number of people who like tea) = 80 – 75 = 25.
If the pattern is 2, 5, 10, 17, what is the next number in the sequence?
- A) 24
- B) 28
- C) 33
- D) 40
Correct Answer: C) 33
Explanation: The pattern adds consecutive odd numbers: 1, 3, 5, 7. Starting with 2, add the next odd number (7) to get the next term: 2 + 7 = 9. So, the next number in the sequence is 17 + 9 = 26.
A box contains 4 red balls, 3 green balls, and 5 blue balls. If one ball is drawn at random, what is the probability that it is not red?
- A) 4/12
- B) 3/12
- C) 8/12
- D) 7/12
Correct Answer: D) 7/12
Explanation: The probability of drawing a non-red ball is the same as the probability of drawing a green or blue ball. There are 3 green balls and 5 blue balls, so the total number of non-red balls is 3 + 5 = 8. The total number of balls in the box is 4 + 3 + 5 = 12. Therefore, the probability is 8/12, which can be simplified to 2/3 or 7/12.
How to study Logical Reasoning and Analytical Ability for CSAT?
Readers may note that this article on Logical Reasoning and Analytical Ability is just an overview of the topic. There is a lot more to learn about logical reasoning and analytical ability in the CSAT paper.
We recommend the below sources to learn the subject.
- Join ClearIAS Video Course (Prelims cum Mains).
- Go through ClearIAS YouTube Classes on CSAT.
- Read books on CSAT.
Also read: CSAT Course: UPSC Prelims Paper 2 Program