What is the purpose of CBD? What are the key features of the CoP 15 of CBD? Read further to know.
The 15th Conference of Parties (CoP) to the UN Convention on Biological Diversity adopted the “Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework” (GBF).
The highlight of the 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP 15) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), which took place from October 11-15, 2021, in Kunming, China, was the adoption of a new global biodiversity framework.
Theme: Ecological Civilization: Building a Shared Future for All Life on Earth
What is Global Biodiversity Framework?
The global biodiversity framework is a set of targets and goals developed by the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) to guide international efforts to protect and conserve biodiversity. The framework aims to halt the loss of biodiversity by 2030 and ensure that biodiversity is valued, conserved, restored, and used sustainably.
Target of Global Biodiversity Framework
The targets of the Global Biodiversity Framework are as follows:
- Protect at least 30% of land and sea areas by 2030.
- Restore at least 20% of degraded ecosystems by 2030.
- Reduce pollution, including plastic pollution, by at least 50% by 2030.
- Reduce the negative impacts of unsustainable fishing practices on biodiversity by at least 50% by 2030.
- Increase the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix to at least 50% by 2030.
- Promote sustainable agriculture and land-use practices, including by reducing the use of pesticides and fertilizers.
- Reduce food waste and loss by at least 50% by 2030.
- Increase the use of nature-based solutions to address climate change and other environmental challenges.
- Protect and restore at least 20% of inland water ecosystems by 2030.
- Increase the participation of indigenous peoples and local communities in biodiversity conservation and management.
- Promote gender equality and women’s empowerment in biodiversity conservation and management.
- Increase the mobilization of financial resources for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.
- Improve the effectiveness of protected areas in conserving biodiversity.
- Reduce the negative impacts of invasive alien species on biodiversity.
- Promote sustainable forest management and reduce deforestation.
- Improve the conservation status of species of particular importance for ecosystem services and livelihoods.
- Promote sustainable tourism practices that respect biodiversity and ecosystems.
- Improve the sustainability of urban and peri-urban areas.
- Increase the resilience of all ecosystems to climate change and other threats.
- Promote the sustainable use of biological resources, including through the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources.
- Improve the availability and accessibility of data and information on biodiversity.
These targets are designed to guide global efforts to protect and conserve biodiversity over the next decade, and to promote sustainable development that benefits both people and the planet. The Global Biodiversity Framework represents a significant step forward in global efforts to address the critical challenges facing biodiversity and ecosystems around the world.
Key Highlights of Cop 15 CBD
The conference was held with the theme “Ecological Civilization: Building a Shared Future for All Life on Earth,” and was focused on setting new targets and goals for biodiversity conservation and restoration for the next decade.
Here are some key highlights of COP 15 CBD:
New Global Biodiversity Framework: COP 15 adopted a new global biodiversity framework that sets out the global biodiversity goals for the next decade. The framework includes 21 targets and 10 headline goals, including protecting at least 30% of land and sea areas, reducing the rate of habitat loss and degradation, and halving the use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers by 2030.
Addressing Biodiversity Loss: COP 15 of CBD focused on addressing the drivers of biodiversity loss, including habitat destruction, overexploitation, and climate change. The conference emphasized the importance of protecting and restoring biodiversity to prevent further loss and promote sustainable production and consumption patterns.
Financial Resources for Biodiversity Conservation: The conference also highlighted the need to mobilize financial resources for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. The conference called for increased funding and investment in biodiversity conservation, and for the private sector to play a greater role in financing conservation efforts.
Indigenous People and Local Communities: COP 15 of CBD recognized the critical role of indigenous people and local communities in biodiversity conservation and management. The conference emphasized the importance of respecting the rights and knowledge of these communities and promoting their participation in conservation and management efforts.
Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits: The conference highlighted the importance of fair and equitable sharing of the benefits derived from genetic resources. The conference emphasized the need to ensure that the benefits of biodiversity are shared fairly and that the rights of indigenous people and local communities are respected.
What is CBD?
CBD stands for the Convention on Biological Diversity, which is an international treaty that was established at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1992. The CBD has three main objectives:
- The conservation of biodiversity: The CBD aims to conserve biological diversity, its components, and its habitats.
- The sustainable use of biodiversity: The CBD aims to ensure the sustainable use of biological diversity so that it can meet the needs of present and future generations.
- The fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of the utilization of genetic resources: The CBD aims to ensure that the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources are shared fairly and equitably among all countries and peoples.
The CBD is the first global agreement to address all aspects of biodiversity, including genetic resources, ecosystems, and species. The CBD provides a framework for international cooperation to address the challenges facing biodiversity and to promote the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity.
History of CBD
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) was established in 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Earth Summit, held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
The CBD is an international treaty that aims to promote the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources.
Since its adoption, the CBD has been ratified by 196 countries and the European Union, making it one of the most widely ratified international environmental treaties. The CBD has become a major platform for international cooperation on biodiversity, and its objectives have been integrated into the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
Over the years, the CBD has led to the development of several key initiatives and programs aimed at conserving biodiversities, such as the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020 and the Global Biodiversity Outlook reports.
The CBD also played a key role in the adoption of the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization, which aims to ensure that the benefits of genetic resources are shared fairly and equitably among all countries and peoples.
Article Written By: Priti Raj