The Yellow Revolution was a movement started in 1986–1987 to boost the production of edible oil, particularly from mustard and sesame seeds, to achieve self-reliance. What is the background of the yellow revolution? What are its characteristics? Read the article to know more about the Yellow revolution.
“Yellow revolution “, is such a colourful word. Isn’t it?
But the challenges faced by this sector are not as colourful as the word.
What is the Yellow Revolution?
The goal of the Yellow Revolution was to expand domestic production of edible oilseeds to meet demand. The Yellow Revolution was a movement started in 1986–1987 to boost the production of edible oil, particularly from mustard and sesame seeds, to achieve self-reliance.
In India, Sam Pitroda is regarded as the father of the Yellow Revolution. Nine oilseeds—groundnut, mustard, soybean, safflower, sesame, sunflower, niger, linseed, and castor—are the focus of the Yellow Revolution.
Background of the Indian Yellow Revolution
India started the Oil Technological Mission in 1986 to ensure the success of the yellow revolution. The introduction of hybrid mustard and sesame seeds during the Yellow Revolution led to a large rise in the production of edible oil, which was also made possible by the adoption of more advanced oil production technologies.
With floating sunflowers in Punjabi fields, the revolution signalled the start of a new age, opened up a lot of opportunities, and assisted in bridging the socioeconomic divide in the nation. When the revolution began, India’s oil production was roughly 12 million tonnes; after ten years, it had doubled to about 24 million tonnes. Yes, that marked tremendous growth.
India’s sources of edible oil
- The main sources include soybean, rapeseed, mustard, peanut, sunflower, safflower, and niger.
- The primary sources of production of edible oil in India are oil palm, coconut, rice bran, cotton seeds, and tree-borne oilseeds.
Around 68 per cent of the nation’s total production of edible oils comes from primary sources, and the remaining 32 per cent comes from secondary sources.
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Primary areas for oil seed production in India
India is perfectly equipped for growing all of the important annual oilseed crops due to its diverse agroecological ecosystem.
- Soybean, groundnut, rapeseed-mustard, sunflower, sesame, safflower, and niger are the nine oilseed crops farmed in the nation. Safflower and niger are the only two non-edible oils (castor and linseed).
- The Malwa plateau, Marathwada, Gujarat, and dry sections of Rajasthan, Telangana, and Rayalseema regions of Andhra Pradesh are major oilseed-producing areas.
The Yellow Revolution’s characteristics
The following are the main characteristics of the Yellow revolution.
- Incentives for farmers were supplied as part of the yellow revolution, along with processing facilities like irrigation, fertiliser, insecticides, a transportation facility, a minimum support price, warehousing, etc.
- Many organisations, like the National Dairy Board, were given duties to encourage the production of oilseeds during the revolution. The NDB must increase Gujarat’s production of groundnut oil. Similarly, the National Oilseeds and Vegetable Oils Development Board were in charge of improving oilseed production in non-traditional locations.
- To increase consumer awareness of the four main oilseeds—mustard, groundnut, soybean, and sunflower—Oilseeds Production Thrust was founded. Additionally, about 3000 oilseed societies with 13 lakh farmers and 25 hectares of arable land were founded.
- Despite becoming self-sufficient in oil production in the following 10 years, India’s production tragically falls short of its needs. India began importing oilseeds from other nations to meet the demand. In 2007, India imported 5 million tonnes from numerous nations including Malaysia, Argentina, Brazil, etc.
Positive aspects of the revolution
- Improved technology helped the tremendous increase in sunflower production in Punjab.
- Helped the country in gaining new socio-economic opportunities.
- The rate of oil production in India changed from 12 million to 24 million in 10 years.
- Farmers started to use hybrid oil seeds and modern technologies were adopted by them.
Challenges to the Yellow Revolution
- The difficulty of enlarging the area under cultivation leads to a shortage of edible oil.
- Poor awareness and a shift in cropping patterns caused a considerable reduction in the area used for oilseed cultivation.
- Oilseeds are more vulnerable to pests and disease, which also reduces production.
- Oilseed output is declining as a result of the cultivation of unhealthful crops as a result of the unhealthful environment.
The government of India has initiated many reforms for the upliftment of this sector.
- National Mission on Oil Palm and Edible Oil (NMEO-OP): The programme, which has a five-year budget of Rs. 11, 040 crores, primarily intends to achieve self-reliance in edible oil aiming to triple domestic palm oil production to 11.20 lakh tonnes by 2025–2026 and 28 lakh tonnes by 2029–2030. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands and India’s northeast are given particular attention by the programme. The government will provide price assurance(The Viability Price) to farmers who choose to grow palm oil. Payment for the shortfall would be made to the farmers directly through a bank transfer.
- Technology Mission on Pulses & Oilseeds (TMOP): In recognition of the relevance and value of oil palm farming, DAC&FW launched the Technology Mission on Oilseeds & Pulses (TMOP) in the prospective states in 1991–1992.
- Oil Palm Development Programme (OPDP): During the VIII and IX Plans, the Oil Palm Development Programme (OPDP), a comprehensive centrally supported programme, was implemented.
- Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil Palm and Maize (ISOPOM): Under the Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil Palm and Maize, the Indian government supported the growth of oil palm during the X and XI Plans (ISOPOM).
- RKVY’s Special Oil Palm Area Expansion Program (OPAE): As of March 2014, oil palm cultivation was still taking place on 60,000 acres of land.
- The National Mission on Oilseeds and Oil Palm (NMOOP): The National Mission on Oilseeds and Oil Palm (NMOOP), which is focused on growing the oil palm industry and its products, was established during the XII Plan.NMOOP and the National Food Security Mission were amalgamated in 2018.
The cultivable area for oilseeds cannot currently be increased. The fact that there is still a deficit of edible oils suggests that the Oilseeds Technology Mission (OTM) and the development of oil palm plantations have had little effect.
These energy-dense crops are subject to several limitations. They are raised in unfavourable conditions and are vulnerable to pests and infections. Recently, farmers have grown high-yielding grains to increase output increase revenues and make use of newer technology.
The nation’s demands for edible oils are satisfied by these key oilseed crops. A second yellow revolution is necessary at this time to meet this demand. To improve production and farm income, dryland farming also requires technological progress. The country’s agriculture and the economy would be significantly impacted if it become self-sufficient in oilseeds
Article Written By: Atheena Fathima Riyas