What were the features of Indus valley civilization? Which were the prominent Indus valley civiliztion sites? What were the reasons for its decline? Read further to know more.
Indus Valley Civilization was the first major civilization in South Asia, which spread across a vast area of land in present-day India and Pakistan (around 12 lakh sq.km).
The time period of the mature Indus Valley Civilization is estimated between BC. 2700- BC.1900 ie. for 800 years. But early Indus Valley Civilization had existed even before BC.2700.
Features of Indus Valley Civilization
- BC. 2700- BC.1900 ie for 800 years.
- On the valleys of river Indus.
- Also known as Harappan Civilization.
- Beginning of city life.
- Harappan Sites discovered by – Dayaram Sahni (1921) – Montgomery district, Punjab, Pakistan.
- Mohanjodaro was discovered by – R. D. Banerji – Larkana district, Sind, Pakistan.
- The city was divided into Citadel(west) and Lower Town(east).
- Red pottery painted with designs in black.
- Stone weights, seals, special beads, copper tools, long stone blades etc.
- Copper, bronze, silver, gold present.
- Artificially produced – Faience.
- Specialists for handicrafts.
- Import of raw materials.
- Plough was used.
- Bodies were buried in wooden coffins, but during the later stages ‘H symmetry culture’ evolved where bodies were buried in painted burial urns.
- Sugar cane not cultivated, horse, iron not used.
Indus Valley Civilisation (Explainer Video)
Indus Valley Sites and Specialties
- Seals out of stones
- Citadel outside on banks of river Ravi
- Great Bath, Great Granary, Dancing Girl, Man with Beard, Cotton, Assembly hall
- The term means ” Mount of the dead”
- On the bank of river Indus
- Believed to have been destructed by flood or invasion(Destruction was not gradual).
- Bank of Indus river. – discovered by Gopal Majumdar and Mackey (1931)
- Pre-Harappan culture – Jhangar Culture and Jhukar Culture
- Only cite without citadel.
- At Rajasthan on the banks of river Ghaggar, discovered by A.Ghosh (1953)
- Fire Altars
- Bones of camel
- Evidence of furrows
- Horse remains (even though Indus valley people didn’t use horses).
- Known as the third capital of the Indus Empire.
- At Gujarat near Bhogava river, discovered by S.R. Rao (1957)
- Fire Altars
- Besides the tributary of Sabarmati
- Dockyard and earliest port
- double burial
- Rice husk
- House had a front entrance (exception).
- Punjab, on the banks of river Sutlej. Discovered by Y.D Sharma (1955)
- Dog buried with humans.
- On banks of lost river Saraswathi
- Barley Cultivation.
- The biggest site in India, until the discovery of Rakhigarhi.
- Located in Khadir Beyt, Rann of Kutch, Gujarat. Discovered by J.P Joshi/Rabindra Singh (1990)
- 3 parts + large open area for ceremonies
- Large letters of the Harappan script (signboards).
The religion of Indus Valley People
- Pashupati Mahadev (Proto Siva)
- Mother goddess
- Nature/ Animal worship
- Unicorn, Dove, Peepal Tree, Fire
- Idol worship was practised ( not a feature of Aryans)
- Did not construct temples.
- The similarity to Hindu religious practises. (Hinduism in its present form originated later)
- No Caste system.
Indus Valley Society and Culture
- The systematic method of weights and measures ( 16 and its multiples).
- Pictographic Script, Boustrophedon script – Deciphering efforts by I. Mahadevan
- Equal status to men and women
- Economic Inequality, not an egalitarian society
- Textiles – Spinning and weaving
- 3 types – burial, cremation and post-cremation were there, though burial was common.
- Majority of people Proto-Australoids and Mediterranean (Dravidians), though Mongoloids, Nordics etc were present in the city culture. Read more on the races of India.
Reasons for Decline of Indus Valley Civilization
Though there are various theories, the exact reason is still unknown.
As per a recent study by IIT Kharagpur and the Archaeological Survey of India, a weaker monsoon might have been the cause of the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization.
Environmental changes, coupled with a loss of power of rulers (central administration) of Indus valley to sustain the city life might be the cause (Fariservis Theory).
There might be a resource shortage to sustain the population, and then people moved towards south India.
Another theory by Dr Gwen Robbins Schug states that inter-personal violence, infectious diseases and climate change had played a major role in the demise of the Indus Valley Civilization.
- Aryan Invasion: Mortimer Wheeler
- Tectonic Movements/ Flood – Robert Raikes
- Change of the course of river Indus – Lambrick.
Sir how to make notes from newspaper the hindu.
I hope so aap sab jitna time lagate ho comments karne me utna laga liya karo padhne me aapko pata bhi hai kitni mehnat lagti hai ye sab likhne me banane me aap logo to bas comment karna aata. Hai atleast wo apke liye itna kuch rahe hai aur wo bhi free me so apko appreciate karna chahiye to aap sab comments paas karte ho faltu ke
First copy an important headlines of both international and national issues on every topics;science,political event,sport,polity,geographic,disaster,nominations,policies made by international institutions,reforms,etc…
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Excellent sir , nothing missed out , brilliant..
Manju chopra says
Yr etna sara phone me se kese learn kre
ANSHU ANAND says
Very useful indeed.
Nce stuff Sir
Kamal Thakur says
Are you sure about the Age period of Indus Civilization? Isn’t it from 2500BC – 1500BC? Can you give me exact detail about this?
Mou saha says
Actually many people said many things about ivc time period …but according j.murshal concept it estimated between 3250 -2750bc ..i found it in jiban mukhapadhayay’s history book of 10th class ..
As I have studied
Existence of harappa : 2500BC-1800BC
nd maturity phase :2200-2000BC
BOOK : RS SHARMA
Aastha Shrivastava says
Indus valley civilization – 2900BC to 1700BC
-early harappan phase 2900BC to 2500BC
-middle harappan phase 2500BC to 2000BC
-late harappan phase 2000BC to 1700BC
gaurav anand says
By latest carbon dating, it has been bet 2500-1700 b.c.
Sir plz provide ancient medieval modern history notes topic wise plz for assistant Commandant exam
shashank shekhar says
Although,which was the main cause of destruction of indus valey civilization ? If the cause was flood then how is it possible that the bank of river sindhu is far from the indus valey cities ?
Shobhit keshari says
Sir how can i start preparation for upsc
Please go through the below links, to get the right guidance.
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this study material is like someone thoroughly study the NCERT(BIBLE OF UPSC) and noted down the important point in the last … very helpful and much-needed thanks again…..
saif din says
Not gud at all
Sir please suggest me constitution book for civil services with edition
Vishnu Shankar says
It was evidence of horse in IVC or not …….
If not some books is written that the the evidence of horse is true in IVC and it is found in SURKOTDA ……
Pls clearify this sir .
It’s not “H symmetry culture”. It’s “Cemetery H Culture”.
suman pandit says
Best note…………..please add some mcq type question answer
Neha K. says
Excellent Sir , Thanks for sharing.
Sir can’t be notes provided in hindi ????
actually sir I’m Hindi medium student
Venkatesh naik G says
Does your article contain 150 to 200 words? is this enough for mains?
Prempal singh says
Remya R says
It is mentioned that horse remains were discovered from kalibangan. Is it correct ??? Horse remains obtained from surkatoda , Gujarat. Right ????
SHOAIB AHMAD ANSARI says
THANKS SIR FOR THE VALUABLE INFORMATION ABOUT INDUS VALLAY CIVILIZATION.
SHUBHAM PARSHURAM PATIL says
Just prepare from this website great contain…
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Thank you so much
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excellent thank u so much sir
excellent thank u so much sir
Anitha Gowda says
Is the information provided here is exactly informative or not.I thought to rely on this keyword notes.
But from the comments I can see there is some wrong info
Can Clearias team clarify the doubt
Sir , yaha park jitna v he history ka ..inn sab ko padhne se history portion cover ho jayega na ..!!
“Nordics” are you kidding me? where did nordics exist in india. This is pure colonial race theory BS.
No race called aryans exist, if they didnt practice idol worship than both Iranians and greeks would have done the same, wouldnt have constructed temples.
Govt should change the syllabus.