Security of India and challenges from external and internal threats is a topic of high importance which makes the understanding of security forces important.
Indian Armed Forces, which consists of Defense Forces, Paramilitary Forces and Strategic Forces Command plays a major role in ensuring national security.
Various Security Forces and Agencies and Their Mandate – a topic for GS Mains Paper 3 – is discussed in detail in another post.
Security Forces in India can be broadly divided into two –
- Indian Armed Force
- Central Armed Police Force (CAPF)
Security Forces Dealing with External Threats
The defence forces (Indian Armed Force) are the primary force responsible for the security of the country, and they come under the authority of the Ministry of Defense. Central Armed Police Force (CAPF) aid in combating external threats (they mainly manage internal security issues) but are managed by Ministry of Home Affairs.
Indian Armed Force
The defence forces are divided into four sub-heads.
- Indian Army Personnel.
- Indian Air Force Personnel.
- Indian Navy Personnel.
- Indian Coast Guard Personnel.
Security Forces Dealing with Internal Threats
There are many divisions of Central Armed Police Force, which deal with internal threats.
Central Armed Police Force (CAPF)
- Assam Rifles (AR)
- Border Security Force (BSF)
- Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)
- Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)
- Indo Tibetan Border Police (ITBP)
- National Security Guard (NSG)
- Sashastra Seema Bal (SSB)
Paramilitary Forces of India
The term Paramilitary forces are not formally used. Informally it is used, when we talk about:
- Indian Coast Guard Personnel – Indian Armed Force
- Assam Rifles (AR) – CAPF
- Special Frontier Force (SFF) – Intelligence
Central Police Organisation
- Intelligence Bureau
- Central Bureau of Investigation
- Bureau of Police Research & Development. (BPRD)
- National Crime Records Bureau
- National Investigation Agency
- Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel National Police Academy, Hyderabad.
- North Eastern Police Academy, Shillong.
- National Institute of Criminology & Forensic Science. (NICFS)
India’s Intelligence and Investigation Agencies
- Intelligence Bureau(IB) – Internal Intelligence.
- Research and Analysis Wing (RAW) – External Intelligence – Similar to the CIA of the US.
- National Technical Research Organisation (NTRO).
- Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA).
- Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT).
- National Technical Research Organisation.
- Defense Intelligence Agency.
- Joint Cipher Bureau.
- Directorate of Revenue Intelligence.
- All India Radio Monitoring Service.
- Signals Intelligence Directorate.
- Aviation Research Centre.
- Directorate of Air Intelligence.
- Directorate of Navy Intelligence.
- Directorate of Income Tax (Intelligence and Criminal Investigation).
- Directorate General of Income Tax Investigation.
- National Investigation Agency – Central agency to combat terrorism.
- Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) – Similar to the FBI of US.
Other law enforcement agencies:
- Directorate of Enforcement (DE).
- Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI).
- Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB).
- Financial Intelligence Unit (FIU).