Which are the must-know articles of the Indian Constitution? Read further to know.
The original Indian Constitution, when adopted by Constituent Assembly in 1949, had 395 articles and 22 parts.
Many other articles and three other parts were added to it by subsequent constitutional amendments. As of now, the Indian constitution has about 450 articles in 25 parts.
In this post, let’s learn the must-know articles of the Indian Constitution.
Must-Know Articles of the Indian Constitution
It’s not expected from a UPSC aspirant to by-heart all articles in Indian Constitution. But he/she is expected to have a fair idea about the nature and salient features of the Indian Constitution like Federalism, Separation of Powers, Fundamental Rights etc.
Article 12 –35
Specify the Fundamental Rights
Specify the Directive Principles of state policy
Specifies the Fundamental Duties of every citizen
Specifies the number of seats in the Rajya Sabha
Specifies the number of seats in the Lok Sabha
Hindi as official language
Imposition of President’s Rule in states
Special status to Kashmir
Repeals India Independence Act and Government of India Act, 1935
Other Important Articles of the Indian Constitution
While learning, take a special note on the below articles.
Part 1 – Art. 1 to art. 4
- Article 1- Name and territory of the union.
- Article 2 – Admission and Establishment of the new state.
- Article 3 – Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries, and the name of existing states.
Part 2 – Art. 5 to art. 11
- Article 5 – Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution.
- Article 6- Rights of citizenship of a certain person who has migrated to India from Pakistan.
- Article 10- continuance of rights of citizenship.
- Article 11- Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.
Part 3 – Art.12 to art.35
- Article 12- Definition of the state
- Article 13 Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.
- Originally, the constitution provided for 7 basic fundamental rights, now there are only six rights, one Right to property U/A 31 was deleted from the list of fundamental rights by 44th amendment act 1978. It made a legal right U/A 300-A in Part XII of the constitution.
Some important Fundamental Rights
Here are the fundamental rights and the corresponding articles which you should remember
Right to Equality: Art. 14 to Art. 18
- Article 14- Equality before the law.
- Article 15- Prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex. Or place of birth.
- Article 16- Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.
- Article 17- Abolition of the untouchability.
- Article 18- Abolition of titles
Right to Freedom: Art. 19 to art. 22
- Art.19 guarantees to all the citizens the six rights
(a) Right to freedom of speech and expression.
(b) Right to assemble peacefully and without arms
(c) Right to form associations or unions.
(d) Right to move freely throughout the territory of India.
(e) Right to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India.
(f) Right to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade, and business.
- Article 20- Protection in respect of conviction for offences.
- Article 21-Protection of life and personal liberty.
- Article 21A – Right to education
- Article 22- Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases.
Right against Exploitation: Art.23 & art. 24
- Article 23- Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour.
- Article 24- Prohibition of employment of children in factories and mines under age of 14.
Right to Freedom of Religion: Art.25 to art. 28
- Article 25- Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion.
- Article 26- Freedom to manage religious affairs.
- Article 27- Freedom as to pay taxes for promotion of any particular religion.
- Article 28- Freedom from attending religious instruction.
Cultural and Educational Rights: Art.29 & art. 30
- Article 29- Protection of interest of minorities.
- Article 30- Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions.
- Article 32- Remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights.
Part 4 Directive Principal of states Policy: Art 36 to Art 51
- Article 36- Definition
- Article 37- Application of DPSP
- Article 39A- Equal justice and free legal aid
- Article 40- Organisation of village panchayat
- Article 41- Right to work, to education, and to public assistance in certain cases
- Article 43- Living Wages, etc. for Workers.
- Article 43A- Participation of workers in management of industries.
- Article 44- Uniform civil code.( applicable in Goa only)
- Article 45- Provision for free and compulsory education for children.
- Article 46- Promotion of educational and economic interest of scheduled castes, ST, and OBC.
- Article 47-Duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health.
- Article 48-Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry.
- Article 49- Protection of monuments and places and objects of natural importance.
- Article 50- Separation of judiciary from the executive.
- Article 51- Promotion of international peace and security.
Part IV-A Fundamental Duties: Art 51A
It contains, originally 10 duties, now it contains 11 duties by 86th amendments act 2002.
Part 5 – Union ( 52-151)
- Article 52- The President of India
- Article 53- Executive Power of the union.
- Article 54- Election of President
- Article 61- Procedure for Impeachment of the President.
- Article 63- The Vice-president of India.
- Article 64- The Vice-President to be ex-officio chairman the Council of States.
- Article 66-Election of Vice-president.
- Article 72-Pardoning powers of President.
- Article 74- Council of Ministers to aid and advise the President.
- Article 76- Attorney-General for India.
- Article 79- Constitution of Parliament
- Article 80- Composition of Rajya Sabha.
- Article 81- Composition of Lok Sabha.
- Article 83- Duration of Houses of Parliament.
- Article 93- The speakers and Deputy speakers of the house of the people.
- Article 105- Powers, Privileges, etc of the House of Parliament.
- Article 109- Special procedure in respect of money bills
- Article 110- Definition of “Money Bills”.
- Article 112- Annual Financial Budget.
- Article 114-Appropriation Bills.
- Article 123- Powers of the President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of parliament.
- Article 124- Establishment of Supreme Court.
- Article 125- Salaries of Judges.
- Article 126- Appointment of acting Chief justice.
- Article 127- Appointment of ad-hoc judges.
- Article 128-Attendance of a retired judge at sitting of the Supreme Court.
- Article 129- Supreme court to be a court of Record.
- Article 130- Seat of the Supreme court.
- Article 136- Special leaves for appeal to the Supreme Court.
- Article 137- Review of judgement or orders by the Supreme court.
- Article 141-Decision of the Supreme Court binding on all the courts.
- Article 148- Comptroller and Auditor- General of India
- Article 149- Duties and Powers of CAG.
Part 6 – States ( 152-237)
- Article 153- Governors of State
- Article 154- Executive Powers of Governor.
- Article 161- Pardoning powers of the Governor.
- Article 165- Advocate-General of the State.
- Article 213- Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances.
- Article 214- High Courts for states.
- Article 215- High Courts to be a court of record.
- Article 226- Power of High Courts to issue certain writs.
- Article 233- Appointment of District judges.
- Article 235- Control over Sub-ordinate Courts.
Part 7 – 238 – Repealed
Part 8 – 239-242 – Union Territories
Part 9 – 243-243 O – Panchayats
- Article 243A- Gram Sabha
- Article 243B- Constitution of Panchayats
Part 9A – 243 P-243 ZG – Municipalities
Part 9B – 243 ZH-243 ZT- Co-operative Societies
Part 10: Scheduled and Tribal Areas -244
Part 11: Center- State Relations 245 – 263
Part 12: Finance, Property, Contracts and Suits (264 – 300A)
- Article 266- Consolidated Fund and Public Accounts Fund
- Article 267- Contingency Fund of India
- Article 280- Finance Commission
- Article 300-A- Right to property.
Part 13: Trade, Commerce and Intercourse within the territories of India (301-307)
- Article 301-Freedom to trade, commerce, and intercourse.
- Article 302- Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce, and intercourse.
Part 14: Services Under Center and State (308-323)
- Article 312- All- India-Service.
- Article 315- Public service commissions for the union and for the states
- Article 320- Functions of Public Service Commission.
Part 14A: Tribunals (323 A – 323 B)
- Article 323A- Administrative Tribunals
Part 15 : Elections (324 – 329)
- Article 324-Superintendence, direction and control of Elections to be vested in an Election Commission.
- Article 325- No person to be ineligible for inclusion in or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste, or sex.
- Article 326- Elections to the house of the people and to the legislative assemblies of states to be on the basis of adult suffrage.
Part 16: Special Provisions to SC, ST, OBC, Minorities etc (330 -342)
- Article 338- National Commission for the SC, & ST.
- Article 340- Appointment of a commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes.
Part 17: Official Language (343- 351)
- Article 343- Official languages of the Union.
- Article 345- Official languages or languages of states.
- Article 348- Languages to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts.
- Article 351-Directive for development of the Hindi languages.
Part 18: Emergency (352-360)
- Article 352- Proclamation of emergency ( National Emergency).
- Article 356- State Emergency (President’s Rule)
- Article 360- Financial Emergency
Part 19: Miscellaneous (361-367)
- Article 361- Protection of President and Governors
Part 20: Amendment of Constitution (368)
- Article 368- Powers of Parliaments to amend the constitution.
Part 21: Special, Transitional and Temporary Provisions (369 – 392)
- Article 370 – Special provision of J&K.
- Article 371A – Special provision with respect to the State of Nagaland
- Article 371-J: Special Status for Hyderabad-Karnataka region
Part 22: Short Text, Commencement, Authoritative Text in Hindi and Repeals (392 – 395)
- Article 393 – Short title – This Constitution may be called the Constitution of India.
Law Student says
We DO NOT have 444 articles. The additional articles that are added do not increase the number of articles. The number of articles in the Constitution still remains 395. There is nothing like Article 396. The new articles are always inserted in between i.e. Article 31A. These should not be counted as separate articles.
Arun Kumar says
You are right..
Jyotirmoy Deka says
Tanya Sharma says
Priya Anand says
Sir that u mentioned only 395 articles but reality is 448 what about reaming.
– Law student
Chandan tamang says
Thanks for ur kind [email protected] student.. for some people who dont know even abc of law n constituion like me,it is very benefiacal for our general awareness.
Manisha kumari says
Yes correct but in this time there are 448 articles
As per Google , India has 448 articles, 25 parts and 100 amendments made till date .
awesome law girl says
no it has 395 articles
What a name awesome law girl😘😘😘😘😘😘😘😘😘😘
If you talk about articles and parts then it’s 395 articles,22 parts after including their subparts count will become 448 Art. and 25 parts
as per google the worlds lengthiest constitution is the Indian constitution which has 444 articles, 22 parts and 100 amendments made till date .
Another Law Student says
This Is true that if counted separately there are 444 articles but in the book that is called the Constitution of India there are only 396 art. The rest are merely clauses or sub-clauses added later. The reason behind this is that there is a rule that no one can alter the basic structure of the COI. Now a problem came up, which was how to include more articles as you cannot add a 397th article as it would be against the Basic Structure Doctrine so a solution which came up, was that to include the new articles in clauses or sub-clauses of the existing articles.
Hope it helps
yeah you r right
Another Law Student says
Sorry a correction the existing articles are 395 not 396 as i mentioned above
Vinish Shetty says
Hi all to explain our constitution has a rigid structure however provision has been given to amend it by article 368 (Semi Rigid)
Total number of numbered articles are 395 however
Total number of articles are 465 because Government of India never adds a new article beyond 395 they amend the constitution by adding articles like 51(A), 243(A) etc….
Classic example is Indira Gandi altering the Constitution in 1974 during emergency (42nd Constitutional amendment)
Extra information : out of 395 articles only 150 are functional rest are all procedural articles, Substantial and enabling articles, Hope this helps
Aspirant – Aspirant
What’s your said absolutely right. … now I satisfied with your answer. .thanks..
Vilaithi cs says
Cud u Pls let me know those functional articles..
we have only 395 article and 22 parts and 12 schedule ,,,alll the article which are added after amedments are inserted between these aticles so there is no increse in no of articles … i,e we can see 21 A added after 86th amedmnets
my drEam says
Thanks to all u guys cleared my doubt before this I was very confused
it is ture and very much corret
How many articles are there? 448 was the answer my teacher told.
indian constitution have 395 articles XXII PARTS VIII SCHEDULES.
akash yadav says
Its dsnt mttr hw mny article hve ….the mttr of fact how many hve in ur mind…[email protected]
thanku so much
pushpesh pandey says
Yes it is 395 article, 22parts, others are included 51a , as explained .
Ramvilas Ghosh A says
The article was useful and good, but didn’t include Art 21A in the fundamental right section.
Its great pleasure to give me actual knowledge about Constitution of india
Proud to be an indian
Sabir Hossain Sardar says
It’s correct that our constitution has 395 articles. Now I would like to know how many articles have been added to it. Please inform me.
Dharan durga vara sai dharmana says
395 articles-20 articles =375 articles. 375 articles +90 articles =465 articles. So totally 465 articles……..😁😁😁😁😁
Gopal Ch Das says
Thank you so much. After going through your comment I understood the fact clearly.
aro anar says
Guys! acc to google ter are 25 parts in our const. is it true? pliz help.
Dharan durga vara sai dharmana says
Yeah bro there are total 25 parts till to date .In 1949 at the time when the costitution was adapted there are 22 parts.the various amendment carried out since 1951 have deleted one part (7th) and added four parts (4a,9a,9b,and 14a) so totally 22-1=21+4=25 are you happy bro i think it may clear your doubt thank you ………😁😁😁😁😁😁😁
Ashok Kasthuri says
Your work is fantastic and deserves an applause.
Kindly correct the below spelling mistake.
“Part 4 – Correct the meaning of “Directive Principal” to “Directive principles”.
MAHESH GUDIKANDULA says
Q1.Last article no.in indian Constitution
Q2. Last amendment no. Till now .give me answer please.
Dharan durga vara sai dharmana says
Last artical no-465 and last amendment no-100 ok……..😁😁😁😁😁😁😁
Rohini Rai says
Thanks for the information author..
article 19 1 (f) you mentioned above is wrong .
Ashwani Kumar says
I am in class 10 and I found best and adequate for NTSE.
can i have a detailed account of all articles by this good site????
Hey tell me one thing…there is mentioned 371(j) special status for Hyderabad-Karnataka region, as Hyderabad is separated into to region Hyderabad and Telangana so Telangana also has the status of special region?…?…?
Devidatta says don't know political science says
I am still in doubt after reading soo many comments how many articles exactly there is????
mr incredible says
its written 448 article in 25 part an 12 schedules in indian constitution what about other remaining why are you saying only 395 articles 22 part whats your reason an your knowledge can you tell me something about your idea
In original constitution there were395 articles with 22 parts, along with ammendments and future demands many new articles came into force.
Here comes the ideology of our leaders (parliamentarians) that we should maintain number 395 as it is, so whenever they made some new articles they make it fit in between somewhere so that the last article remains 395 but there are total 448 articles.
It is the reason that I am aware of, it can be something else, it is as per my best knowledge.
What is exact number of articles in Indian constitution 448 or 450
Shaik Mahaboobjailan says
448Articles , 25 Parts and 12 schedules
Hyderabad Karnataka is the north part of Karnataka where nijam ruled in Past time so that the area was still backward so the Karnataka govt given special reservation in jobs and education to the north Karnataka.
ANBAZHAGAN R says
Kindly note that, the information under reference,
Article-4 is missing in explanation if possible kindly rectify the defect/incorporate it in the text
Sruti kumari says
I want to learn articl