Are you searching for model questions for UPSC Civil Services Main Exam?
The UPSC mains exam is written (subjective) in nature.
There are 4 General Studies Papers (including a paper on Ethics), besides 1 essay paper, and 2 optional-subject papers. Apart from these, there are 2 compulsory language papers which are just qualifying in nature.
ClearIAS Backgrounder (Current Affairs): 100 Most Probable Topics
If you are looking for revision material to quickly understand the background of current issues, ClearIAS Backgrounder (Current Affairs) will be the ultimate resource.
We have covered 100 Most Probable Topics in PDF format in ClearIAS Current Affairs Backgrounder. The book is prepared in such a format that it will be useful for aspirants attempting Mains/Interview.
As the UPSC Prelims pattern too is becoming more analytical, aspirants preparing for the Preliminary Exam should also find this book useful.
UPSC Mains: Most Probable Questions
Here, we present you about 90 Model Questions for UPSC Civil Services Main Exam.
- Despite the rapid strides made in foodgrains output, malnutrition in India remains stubbornly high. What are the reasons for this? Also, suggest some remedial measures.
- “The Swachh Bharat Mission’s approach to sanitation could end up legitimizing manual scavenging.” Critically comment.
- The Union Government has set the goal to double farmers’ income by 2022-23. In this context critically examine the recommendations of the Ashok Dalwai committee.
- Examine whether the provisions of the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act are in consonance with India’s international commitments on Human Rights?
- “The Land Acquisition Law of 2013 was drafted with the intention to discourage land acquisition. But the legislation has failed to fulfil this objective.” Critically comment.
- “Political parties should evolve a code of conduct for MPs and MLAs both within and outside the Houses for the effective functioning of legislatures.” Discuss.
- “India’s constitutional democracy is based on the people’s right to call state power to account.” Elucidate.
- “The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2019 undermines the rights of the individuals it seeks to protect”. Critically examine.
- What do you understand by “Right to be forgotten”? The Right to be forgotten in the proposed Data Protection Bill poses a threat to press freedom and RTI. Comment.
- Briefly discuss the salient features of the National Electric Mobility Mission Plan 2020. What challenges do you foresee in achieving the targets set under the mission?
- The criminalisation of politics cannot be curbed by merely disqualifying tainted legislators. In the light of this statement, discuss the various judgments of the Supreme Court and recommendations of the law commission to decriminalize the politics in India.
- Write a brief note on the discretionary power of the Speaker of Loksabha. Discuss how different judgments of the Supreme Court introduced checks and balances into the discretionary power of the Speaker.
- What do you understand by the “doctrine of essential practices”? Do you think, with this doctrine the Supreme Court has transformed itself into a religious arbiter?
- With suitable examples, discuss the socio-economic and environmental impact of the growth of the tourism sector in India.
- India’s disaster management setup requires a complete overhaul to deal with frequent and extreme weather events. Examine.
- Considering the rapid technological developments in the field of digital communication, critically evaluate the National Digital Communications Policy 2018, outlining the challenges perceived in its effective implementation.
- The recent amendments to the Prevention of Corruption Act remove some of the lacunae in the earlier law but do not go to the root of the problem. Elucidate.
- What are the strategic challenges faced by India from China’s Belt and Road initiatives? Do you think, joining the initiative would help India in overcoming some of the challenges?
- Government intervention in the agriculture sector should focus on investment and access to the latest technologies, rather than on input subsidies. Discuss.
- Briefly describe India’s climate commitments under the Paris Agreement. Evaluate the steps taken by India to fulfil those commitments.
- Discuss the importance of Biotechnology in ensuring nutritional security in India. What factors hinder the adoption of Biotechnology in agriculture on the lines of the Green Revolution?
- The ‘feminization of agriculture’ is picking up pace in India. But women in agriculture face multiple challenges. What are those challenges? Suggest measures to overcome the same.
- Discuss the reasons for the emergence of nuclear families in India in recent decades. What are the advantages of Joint families over nuclear families?
- As per the recent Economic Survey, India’s demographic dividend could soon shift, with a young population giving way to an ageing one. What are the challenges and opportunities thrown by this demographic shift?
- “A national policy for internal migration is needed to improve earnings and enable an exit from poverty”. Discuss.
- What do you understand by ‘judicial legislation? What are its implications?
- The creation of the All India judicial service is suggested as a solution for the chronic shortage of judges in India. Evaluate the arguments in support and against the creation of All India judicial service.
- First-past-the-post electoral system has outlived its utility in India. In light of this statement analyze the changing electoral trends since Independence.
- The trustworthiness of elections in India relies on the independent and impartial functioning of the Election Commission. In light of this statement critically examine the constitutional safeguards related to the functioning of the Election Commission.
- Discuss the impediments to farm mechanization in India. Suggest some innovative solutions to augment farm mechanization.
- Enumerate the salient features of the new agricultural export policy. What challenges do you perceive in achieving the objectives of the policy?
- Online pharmacies have been increasingly popular in recent times. What are the advantages of online pharmacies over the traditional pharmacies? Why healthcare experts are demanding greater regulations for online pharmacies?
- What are neutrinos? Why is the India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) project important for India?
- “India’s push for data localization is not a protectionist approach but it is to manage local interests.” Elucidate.
- Discuss the main shortcomings of the current agricultural marketing system in India. How the model Agriculture Produce and Livestock Marketing Act, 2017 aims to address them?
- Has India moved away from the Nehru’s Tribal Panchsheel in formulating the policies for the indigenous communities? Discuss.
- India recently completed nuclear triad by commissioning INS Arihant. Do you think, this has posed some major challenges for strategic stability in the southern Asian region?
- “The DNA Technology (Use and Application) Regulation Bill, 2019 will give the state untrammelled access to deeply personal and penetrating material.” Critically comment.
- Prohibiting commercial surrogacy and allowing altruistic surrogacy does more harm than good. Discuss.
- “Section 69 of the IT Act allows for disproportionate state action, and is antithetical to the right to privacy.” Critically comment.
- What was held in the NALSA Vs Union of India judgment? Do you think the Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill, 2019 omits the positive rights and ignores the protections provided by the judgment?
- Discuss the various steps taken by the government to increase the female labour participation rate in India.
- Write a note on the importance of MSME sector in the Indian economy and also analyze the steps taken by the union government to support the MSME sector.
- The latest Periodic Labour Force Survey (2017-18) flags the issue of growing ‘educated unemployment’. Discuss the causes and consequences of educated unemployment in India.
- “The lack of adequate representation of women in Parliament undermines our democracy and perpetuates existing systemic injustices.” In the light of this statement, make a case for passage of the Women’s reservation bill.
- Critically analyze the constitutional position, powers and functions of the Attorney General for India.
- The recent amendments to the Right to Education Act, rather than tackling the learning deficit, would result in a jump in the number of school dropouts. Elucidate.
- What is the legal status of the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI)? In the light of various judgments of the Supreme Court, discuss how can CBI be insulated from political interference.
- “The local governments should be looked as representative institutions, not as administrative vessels for implementing programmes of the Central and State governments.” Elucidate.
- Briefly discuss the working of federalism in India. Do you think, granting more power to the States and limiting those of the Centre could threaten the unity of India?
- Write a note on the role played by the different Central Armed Police Forces in maintaining the internal security in India.
- What are the salient features of the Coastal Regulation Zone notification, 2018? Do you agree with the view that the regulation increases the vulnerability of coastal people to climate disasters? Substantiate.
- In what ways would Britain’s possible exit from the European Union affect the economy of India? How should India respond to this situation?
- What are the challenges faced by the tenant farmers in India? To what extent the land reform measures have succeeded in addressing these challenges?
- “India struck the right note by deciding to stay out of WTO e-commerce negotiations.” Do you agree? Substantiate your views.
- What are Mahatma Gandhiji’s views on Varnashrama dharma? How was it different from other Social reformers of his time?
- “Strengthening the MGNREGA would be more prudent than a targeted cash transfer plan like PM-KISAN.” Critically comment.
- “The anti-defection law has converted MPs from being representatives of the people to delegates of the party.” Elucidate.
- What is the rationale behind the insertion of new Part XIV-A into the constitution through the 42nd Amendment Act? Has it undermined the authority of the High Courts?
- Has India’s conventional deterrence capabilities failed to deter state-sponsored terrorism and insurgencies from the neighbouring countries? Discuss.
- What do you understand by ‘Priority sector lending (PSL)’? Critically analyze the impact of priority sector lending on the Agriculture and the MSME sector.
- Highlight the major recommendations of the P J Nayak Committee. How far would they go in improving the governance in Public Sector Banks?
- Write a note on the teachings of 12th-century Indian philosopher Basaveshwara. To what extent have his teachings provide inputs to contemporary socio-political issues?
- “Right to Information (RTI) Act, 2005 has revolutionized the governance and overpowered notions of secrecy protected by the Official Secrets Act, 1923.” Discuss.
- What would be the impact of the withdrawal of trade privileges by the United States on the Indian Economy? How should India respond to this situation?
- In the light of recommendations of various committees, critically analyze the arguments in support of and against the state funding of elections in India.
- Trace the evolution of the Model Code of Conduct (MCC) in India. Do you think giving statutory status to the model code of conduct would improve its effectiveness?
- The frequency and intensity of drought are increasing over the years. Discussing the reasons for the same, highlight the mechanisms for preparedness to reduce the risk during such events.
- The recent report of the IPBES notes that 1/8th of global flora and fauna are facing extinction due to the degradation of biodiversity. Discuss the reasons for the degradation of biodiversity and suggest measures to check the same.
- In the light of the recent case between the Potato farmers from Gujarat and Pepsico, discuss the status and challenges of intellectual property rights in agriculture in India.
- “India needs just laws more than Uniform personal laws.” Do you agree? Substantiate your views.
- Discuss Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar’s contribution to the making of the modern Bengali society.
- “The coalition governments deliver better than the single-party rule.” Critically examine.
- What is ‘Gene Editing’? Discuss the applications and ethical concerns involved in gene editing.
- Has SAARC lost its relevance as a platform for South Asian interests and shared growth? Discuss.
- Critically analyze the performance of NITI Aayog over the past four years. How has it been different from the erstwhile planning commission?
- The Delhi government recently proposed to make metro and bus travel free for women. How far would it go in making public transport gender-inclusive?
- Compare and contrast the organizational structures of ISRO and DRDO. What hinders DRDO from replicating the ISRO’s success?
- Discuss the importance of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation to India’s Eurasian policy.
- “To bolster the independence of Judiciary, the criteria for appointment of Judges must go beyond those laid out in the constitution.” Elucidate.
- To what extent would the simultaneous polls address the distortions in the current electoral system? Discuss.
- In the light of the ‘Access, Watch and Reserve’ approach adopted by the WHO, discuss the steps taken by India to combat the growing menace of antibiotic abuse.
- Supreme Court in one of its ruling observed that the failure to provide a patient with timely medical treatment results in a violation of the patient’s right to life. In light of this statement make a case for enforcing healthcare as a basic right in India.
- Highlight the gaps in the current education system in India. How the proposed draft National Educational policy aims to address those gaps?
- “Unlike SAARC, BIMSTEC provides an opportunity to India for economic, cultural and social cooperation in the region.” Comment.
- “The Bandung Conference of 1955 was not just about non-alignment, but promoting Afro-Asian solidarity.” Discuss.
- In the light of the recent Supreme Court Judgment, discuss how far has the Forest Rights Act, 2006 been able to protect the rights of tribals and forest dwellers in India?
- Discuss the constitutional rationale behind the enabling clauses under Articles 15 and 16 of the Indian constitution. Do you think, the extension of reservation to different classes and castes in recent times has diluted this rationale?
- Do you think, Section 124A of IPC has outlived its utility? Discuss.
- “Social morality cannot trump constitutional morality”. Discuss in the light of recent landmark judgments of the Supreme Court.
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